12.0.01. Requires ReactiveSwift 7.0.


  1. Building from Xcode project no longer warns about use of deprecated class keyword usage. (#3726, kudos to @michalsrutek)
  2. Updated Carthage xcconfig dependency to 1.1 for proper building arm64 macOS variants.


  1. Fixed missing Foundation import when building with SPM in Xcode 12.5. (#3725, kudos to @TimPapler)


  1. Requires ReactiveSwift 6.6.0 or later.
  2. The minimum deployment target for iOS has been raised consistently to 9.0 across all integration mediums.


11.0.01. Binding for WKInterfaceActivityRing has been removed, since it causes watchOS builds to be linked with HealthKit, leading to potential App Store rejections for apps who do not use HealthKit. (#3706)

Users who depend on the WKInterfaceActivityRing binding should consider replicating them in their projects instead.


  1. Don't include code which uses unavailable classes (like NSSlider) when targeting macOS Catalyst (#3698, kudos to @nkristek)
  2. Fixed watchOS build issues. (#3703, kudos to @JaviSoto)


  1. Update ReactiveSwift to 6.2.
  2. Updated to reflect Swift 5.1 compatibility and point snippets to 10.1.0 (#3691, kudos to @Marcocanc)
  3. Support for Swift Package Manager (#3692, #3676 & #3693, kudos to @fabio-cerdeiral-ck, @sharplet and @simba909)


  1. Update dependencies so ReactiveCocoa can be used with Xcode 11 (#3677, kudos to @olejnjak)
  2. Add a binding target for the barTintColor of UINavigationBar (#3675, kudos to @rehatkathuria)
  3. Add reactive extensions for standard WatchKit interface objects. (#3670, kudos to @tdimeco)
  4. Fix crashes of NSObject.signal(for:) and NSObject.producer(for:) with Objective-C enums (#3667, kudos to @gfontenot)



  1. Update ReactiveSwift to 6.0
  2. Remove dependency on antitypical/Result

Upgrade to master


  1. Make UITextField and UITextView text and attributedText values non-optional. (#3591, kudos to @Marcocanc)
  2. KVO observations can now be made with Smart Key Path in Swift 3.2+, using producer(for:) and signal(for:) available on NSObject.reactive. (#3491, kudos to @andersio)
  3. Fix warnings for deprecated use of Swift's allocate/deallocate methods.
  4. Update Quick (2.0.0) and Nimble (8.0.1).
  5. Update ReactiveSwift to 5.0.
  6. Added applicationIconBadgeNumber binding target to UIApplication (#3589, kudos to @cocoahero).
  7. Add extension for alphaValue property of NSView class. (#3636, kuds to @eimantas)
  8. Add extension for isHidden property of NSView class. (#3634, kudos to @eimantas)


  1. ReactiveMapKit has now platform specific build targets and schemes. (#3625, kudos to @andersio)


  1. Add extensions for several properties on WKInterfaceLabel and WKInterfaceButton. (#3616, kudos to @yoching)
  2. Add swift_version to podspecs (#3622, kudos to @olejnjak)
  3. Introduce Lifetime.of(_:) which retrieves the lifetime of any Objective-C or Swift native object. (#3614, kudos to @ra1028)
  4. Fixed an issue of SignalProducer.take(duringLifetimeOf:) incorrectly retaining its argument. (#3615, kudos to @andrei-kuzma)


  1. Add extensions for several properties on UIBarButtonItem (#3586, kudos to @asmallteapot).


  1. Add support for Cocoapods 1.5.0 static frameworks (#3590, kudos to @mishagray)

  2. Add becomeFirstResponder and resignFirstResponder extensions to UIResponder. (#3585, kudos to @Marcocanc)

  3. Added title binding target to UIViewController (#3588, kudos to @cocoahero).

  4. Added several trigger signals for view lifecycle events to UIViewController (#3588, kudos to @cocoahero).


  1. Fixed a compilation issue related to SR-7299. (#3580)

  2. Improved the interoperability of method interception. (#3570, kudos to @andersio)

  3. Add showsCancelButton, textDidBeginEditing and textDidEndEditing extensions to UISearchBar. (#3565, kudos to @banjun)

  4. NotificationCenter.reactive.keyboard(_:) for system keyboard notification by the event types. (#3566, kudos to @ra1028)

  5. Add extensions for several properties on UINavigationItem. (#3576, kudos to @asmallteapot)

  6. Add extension for search on MKLocalSearchRequest. (#3571, kudos to @Marcocanc)



  1. Fix an issue preventing ReactiveCocoa from being built with the Swift 3.2 language mode. (#3556)


  1. Requires ReactiveSwift 3.1.0 Release Candidate 1. (#3555)

  2. Added reactive extension for AppKit's NSTextView. (#3549, kudos to @Palleas)


  1. Added tintColor binding target to UIView. (#3542, kudos to @iv-mexx)

  2. Fixed DynamicProperty for optional properties. (#3548, kudos to @iv-mexx)

  3. Made makeBindingTarget available on Reactive extensions on all objects, not just NSObject. (#3545, kudos to @Burgestrand)


  1. Update ReactiveSwift to 3.0.

  2. Added placeholder binding target to UITextField. (#3536)


  1. UISearchBar has gained more reactive bindings and signals. (#3531, kudos to @andersio)

    Signals: Search Button Clicked, Bookmark Button Clicked, Results List Clicked, Selected Scope Button Index

    Binding Target: Selected Scope Button Indices.


  1. Requires ReactiveSwift 3.0.0 alpha 1.

  2. ReactiveCocoa is now compatible with the Swift 4.0 language mode, in addition to the Swift 3.2 compatibility mode. (#3526, kudos to @andersio)


  1. MapKit reactive bindings have been moved to a new ReactiveMapKit framework. (#3524)

    Sources that use the MapKit bindings are now required to import ReactiveMapKit.

    For all Xcode project users (including Carthage), targets need to be configured to link against ReactiveMapKit. For CocoaPods users, the framework is offered as a standalone podspec, so the Podfile needs to be updated with a new entry.



  1. Added cancelButtonClicked signal to UISearchBar.

  2. Subscripting reactive with a key path now yields a corresponding BindingTarget under Swift 3.2+. (#3489, kudos to @andersio)


    label.reactive[\.text] <~ viewModel.title


  1. Disabled code coverage data to allow app submissions with Xcode 9.0 (see, kudos to @NachoSoto)


  1. [Xcode 9 beta 5] Fixed an issue causing infinite recursion in the Swift runtime. (#3498, kudos to @andersio)




  1. NSObject reactive extensions now work in generic environments that are limited to NSObjectProtocol. (#3484, kudos to @nickdomenicali)

  2. New reactive extension for UIScrollView: scrollsToTop. (#3481, kudos to @Qata)


  1. UIButton.reactive.pressed now reacts to the primaryActionTriggered control event, instead of touchUpInside, on iOS 9.0+ and tvOS 9.0+. (#3480, kudos to @andrei-kuzma)

  2. New reactive extension: UITextField.reactive.selectedRangeValues. (#3479, kudos to @Igor-Palaguta)



  1. UITextField text signals now react to editingDidEndOnExit. (#3474)

  2. Introduce mapControlEvents(_:_:) which is set to replace controlEvents(_:_:) in most cases. (#3472)

    You should use mapControlEvents in general unless the state of the control — e.g. text, state — is not concerned. In other words, you should avoid using map on a control event signal to extract the state from the control.

  3. Resigning first responder when reacting to a UITextField signal no longer deadlocks. (#3453, #3472)

  4. New operator: take(duringLifetimeOf:). (#3466, kudos to @andersio) It is available on Signal and SignalProducer, and supports both Objective-C and native Swift objects.


Table of Contents

  1. Repository Split
  2. Swift 3.0 API Renaming
  3. New in 5.0: Cocoa Extensions
  4. Changes in ReactiveSwift 1.0
  5. Migrating from the ReactiveObjC API

Repository Split

In version 5.0, we split ReactiveCocoa into multiple repositories for reasons explained in the sections below. The following should help you get started with choosing the repositories you require:

If you’re using only the Swift APIs, you can continue to include ReactiveCocoa. You will also need to link against ReactiveSwift, which is now a dependency of ReactiveCocoa.

If you’re using only the Objective-C APIs, you can switch to using ReactiveObjC. It has all the Obj-C code from RAC 2.

If you’re using both the Swift and Objective-C APIs, you likely require both ReactiveCocoa and ReactiveObjCBridge, which depend on ReactiveSwift and ReactiveObjC.

Attention: If you're using ReactiveCocoa, you'll most likely need to import ReactiveSwift as well when using classes or operators that are implemented in ReactiveSwift.


The ReactiveCocoa library is newly focused on Swift and the UI layers of Apple’s platforms, building on the work of Rex.

Reactive programming provides significant benefit in UI programming. RAC 3 and 4 focused on building out the new core Swift API. But we feel that those APIs have matured and it’s time for RAC-friendly extensions to AppKit and UIKit.


The core, platform-independent Swift APIs have been extracted to a new framework, ReactiveSwift.

As Swift continues to grow as a language and a platform, we hope that it will expand beyond Cocoa and Apple’s platforms. Separating the Swift code makes it possible to use the reactive paradigm on other platforms.


The 3.x and 4.x releases of ReactiveCocoa included the Objective-C code from ReactiveCocoa 2.x. That code has been moved to ReactiveObjC because:

  1. It’s independent of the Swift code
  2. It has a separate user base
  3. It has a separate group of maintainers

We hope that this move will enable continued support of ReactiveObjC.


Moving the Swift and Objective-C APIs to separate repositories meant that a new home was needed for the bridging layer between the two.

This bridge is an important tool for users that are working in mixed-language code bases. Whether you are slowly adding Swift to a mature product built with the ReactiveCocoa Objective-C APIs, or looking to adopt ReactiveCocoa in a mixed code base, the bridge is required to communicate between Swift and Objective-C code.

Swift 3.0 API Renaming

We mostly adjusted the ReactiveCocoa API to follow the Swift 3 API Design Guidelines, or to match the Cocoa and Foundation API changes that came with Swift 3 and the latest platform SDKs.

Lots has changed, but if you're already migrating to Swift 3 then that should not come as a surprise. Fortunately for you, we've provided annotations in the source that should help you while using the Swift 3 migration tool that ships with Xcode 8. When changes aren't picked up by the migrator, they are often provided for you as Fix-Its.

Tip: You can apply all the suggested fix-its in the current scope by choosing Editor > Fix All In Scope from the main menu in Xcode, or by using the associated keyboard shortcut.

New in 5.0: Cocoa Extensions

Foundation: Object Interception

RAC 5.0 includes a few object interception tools from ReactiveObjC, remastered for ReactiveSwift.

  1. Method Call Interception

    Create signals that are sourced by intercepting Objective-C objects.

    // Notify after every time `viewWillAppear(_:)` is called.
    let appearing = viewController.reactive.trigger(for: #selector(UIViewController.viewWillAppear(_:)))
  2. Object Lifetime

    Obtain a Lifetime token for any NSObject to observe their deinitialization.

    // Observe the lifetime of `object`.
  3. Expressive, Safe Key Path Observation

    Establish key-value observations in the form of SignalProducers and strong-typed DynamicPropertys, and enjoy the inherited composability.

    // A producer that sends the current value of `keyPath`, followed by
    // subsequent changes.
    // Terminate the KVO observation if the lifetime of `self` ends.
    let producer = object.reactive.values(forKeyPath: #keyPath(key))
    	.take(during: self.reactive.lifetime)
    // A parameterized property that represents the supplied key path of the
    // wrapped object. It holds a weak reference to the wrapped object.
    let property = DynamicProperty<String>(object: person,
                                           keyPath: #keyPath(

These are accessible via the reactive magic property that is available on any ObjC objects.

AppKit & UIKit: UI bindings

UI components now expose a collection of binding targets to which can be bound from any arbitrary streams of values.

  1. UI Bindings

    UI components exposes BindingTargets, which accept bindings from any kind of streams of values via the <~ operator.

    // Bind the `name` property of `person` to the text value of an `UILabel`.
    nameLabel.reactive.text <~
  2. Controls and User Interactions

    Interactive UI components expose Signals for control events and updates in the control value upon user interactions.

    A selected set of controls provide a convenience, expressive binding API for Actions.

    // Update `allowsCookies` whenever the toggle is flipped.
    preferences.allowsCookies <~ toggle.reactive.isOnValues
    // Compute live character counts from the continuous stream of user initiated
    // changes in the text. { $0.characters.count }
    // Trigger `commit` whenever the button is pressed.
    button.reactive.pressed = CocoaAction(viewModel.commit)

These are accessible via the reactive magic property that is available on any ObjC objects.

Changes in ReactiveSwift 1.0

Signal: Lifetime Semantics

Prior to RAC 5.0, Signals lived and continued to emit values (and side effects) until they completed. This was very confusing, even for RAC veterans. So changes have been made to the lifetime semantics. Signals now live and continue to emit events only while either (a) they have observers or (b) they are retained. This clears up a number of unexpected cases and makes Signals much less dangerous.

SignalProducer: buffer has been removed.

Consider using Signal.pipe for buffer(0), MutableProperty for buffer(1) or replayLazily(upTo: n) for buffer(n).

Properties: Composition

Properties are now composable! They have many of the same operators as Signal and SignalProducer: map, filter, combineLatest, zip, flatten, etc.

Properties: Lifetime Semantics

Composed properties, including those created via Property(initial:then:), are semantically a view to their ultimate sources. In other words, the lifetime, the signal and the producer would respect the ultimate sources, and deinitialization of an instance of composed property would not have an effect on these.

let property = MutableProperty(1)
var composed: Property<Int> = { $0 + 10 }
composed.startWithValues { print("\($0)") }
composed = nil

property.value = 2
// The produced signal is still alive, printing `12` to the output stream.

Atomic: A more efficient modify

Atomic.modify now passes its value to the supplied action as an inout. This enables the compiler to optimize it as an in-place mutation, which benefits collections, large structs and structs with considerable amount of references.

Moreover, Atomic.modify now returns the returned value from the supplied action, instead of the old value as in RAC 4.x, so as to reduce unnecessary copying.

// ReactiveCocoa 4.0
let old = atomicCount.modify { $0 + 1 }

// ReactiveSwift 1.0
let old = atomicCount.modify { value in
    let old = value
    value += 1
    return old


The new BindingTargetProtocol protocol has been formally introduced to represent an entity to which can form a unidirectional binding using the <~ operator. A new type BindingTarget has also been introduced to represent non-observable targets that are expected to only be written to.

// The `UIControl` exposes a `isEnabled` binding target.
control.isEnabled <~ viewModel.isEnabled


Lifetime is introduced to represent the lifetime of any arbitrary reference types. It works by completing the signal when its wrapping Lifetime.Token deinitializes with the associated reference type. While it is provided as NSObject.reactive.lifetime on Objective-C objects, it can also be associated manually with Swift classes to provide the same semantics.

public final class MyController {
	private let token = Lifetime.Token()
	public let lifetime: Lifetime

	public init() {
		lifetime = Lifetime(token)

Migrating from the ReactiveObjC API


ReactiveObjC ReactiveCocoa 5.0
Cold RACSignal SignalProducer
Hot RACSignal Signal
Serial RACCommand Action
Concurrent RACCommand Currently no counterpart.


ReactiveObjC ReactiveCocoa 5.0
RAC(label, text) Discover binding targets via .reactive on UI components.

label.reactive.text <~

RACObserve(object, keyPath) NSObject.reactive.values(forKeyPath:)
#### NSObject interception
ReactiveObjC ReactiveCocoa 5.0
rac_willDeallocSignal NSObject.reactive.lifetime, in conjunction with the take(during:) operator.

signal.take(during: object.reactive.lifetime)

rac_liftSelector:withSignals: Apply combineLatest to your signals, and invoke the method in observeValues.

Signal.combineLatest(signal1, signal2)
	.take(during: self.reactive.lifetime)
	.observeValues { [weak self] in self?.perform(first: $0, second: $1) }

rac_signalForSelector: NSObject.reactive.trigger(for:) and NSObject.reactive.signal(for:)
rac_signalForSelector:fromProtocol: Currently no counterpart.
#### Control bindings and observations
ReactiveObjC ReactiveCocoa 5.0
Control value changes, e.g. textField.rac_textSignal() Discover control value `Signal`s via .reactive on UI components.

viewModel.searchString <~ textField.reactive.textValues

rac_signalForControlEvents: UIControl.reactive.trigger(for:)
rac_command Discover action binding APIs via .reactive on UI components.

button.reactive.pressed = CocoaAction(viewModel.submitAction)


If you’re new to the Swift API and migrating from RAC 2, start with the 3.0 changes. This section only covers the differences between 3.0 and 4.0.

Just like in RAC 3, because Objective-C is still in widespread use, 99% of RAC 2.x code will continue to work under RAC 4.0 without any changes. That is, RAC 2.x primitives are still available in RAC 4.0.

ReactiveCocoa 4.0 targets Xcode 7.2.x and Swift 2.1.x, and it supports iOS 8.0, watchOS 2.0, tvOS 9.0 and OS X 10.9.

Signal operators are protocol extensions

The biggest change from RAC 3 to RAC 4 is that Signal and SignalProducer operators are implemented as protocol extensions instead of global functions. This is similar to many of the collection protocol changes in the Swift 2 standard library.

This enables chaining signal operators with normal dot-method calling syntax, which makes autocompleting operators a lot easier. Previously the custom |> was required to enable chaining global functions without a mess of nested calls and parenthesis.

/// RAC 3
  |> filter { $0 % 2 == 0 }
  |> map { $0 * $0 }
  |> observe { print($0) }

/// RAC 4
  .filter { $0 % 2 == 0 }
  .map { $0 * $0 }
  .observeNext { print($0) }

Additionally, this means that SignalProducer operators are less “magic”. In RAC 3 the Signal operators were implicitly lifted to work on SignalProducer via |>. This was a point of confusion for some, especially when browsing the source looking for these operators. Now as protocol extensions, the SignalProducer operators are explicitly implemented in terms of their Signal counterpart when available.

Removal of |> custom operator

As already alluded to above, the custom |> operator for chaining signals has been removed. Instead standard method calling syntax is used for chaining operators.

Event cases are no longer boxed

The improvements to associated enum values in Swift 2 mean that Event case no longer need to be Boxed. In fact, the Box dependency has been removed completely from RAC 4.

Replacements for the start and observer overloads

The observe and start overloads taking next, error, etc. optional function parameters have been removed. They’ve been replaced with methods taking a single function with the target Event case — observeNext, startWithNext, and the same for failed and completed. See #2311 and #2318 for more details.

Renamed try and catch operators

The try and catch operators were renamed because of the addition of the error handling keywords with the same name. They are now attempt and flatMapError respectively. Also, tryMap was renamed to attemptMap for consistency.

flatten and flatMap are now possible for all 4 combinations of Signal+SignalProducer

This fills a gap that was missing in RAC 3. It’s a common pattern to have signals-of-signals or signals-of-producers. The addition of flatten and flatMap over these makes it now possible to work with any combination of Signals and SignalProducers.

Renamed Event.Error to Event.Failed

The Error case of Event has changed to Failed. This aims to help clarify the terminating nature of failure/error events and puts them in the same tense as other terminating cases (Interrupted and Completed). Likewise, some operations and parameters have been renamed (e.g. Signal.observeError is now Signal.observeFailed, Observer.sendError is now Observer.sendFailed).

Renamed signal generic parameters

The generic parameters of Signal, SignalProducer, and other related types have been renamed to Value and Error from T and E respectively. This is in-line with changes to the standard library to give more descriptive names to type parameters for increased clarity. This should have limited impact, only affecting generic, custom signal/producer extensions.

Added missing SignalProducer operators

There were some Signal operators that were missing SignalProducer equivalents:

Added new operators:

Renamed PropertyOf<T> to AnyProperty<T>

This is in-line with changes to the standard library in Swift 2.

Enhancements to PropertyType

MutableProperty received 3 new methods, similar to those in Atomic: modify, swap, and withValue. Additionally, all PropertyTypes now have a signal: Signal<T> in addition to their existing producer: SignalProducer<T> property.

Publicized Bag and Atomic

Bag and Atomic are now public. These are useful when creating custom operators for RAC types.

SignalProducer.buffer no longer has a default capacity

In order to force users to think about the desired capacity, this no longer defaults to Int.max. Prior to this change one could have inadvertently cached every value emitted by the SignalProducer. This needs to be specified manually now.

Added SignalProducer.replayLazily for multicasting

It’s still recommended to use SignalProducer.buffer or PropertyType when buffering behavior is desired. However, when you need to compose an existing SignalProducer to avoid duplicate side effects, this operator is now available.

The full semantics of the operator are documented in the code, and you can see #2639 for full details.


ReactiveCocoa 3.0 includes the first official Swift API, which is intended to eventually supplant the Objective-C API entirely.

However, because migration is hard and time-consuming, and because Objective-C is still in widespread use, 99% of RAC 2.x code will continue to work under RAC 3.0 without any changes.

Since the 3.0 changes are entirely additive, this document will discuss how concepts from the Objective-C API map to the Swift API. For a complete diff of all changes, see the 3.0 pull request.


  1. Parameterized types
  2. Interrupted event
  3. Objective-C bridging


  1. Hot signals are now Signals
  2. Cold signals are now SignalProducers
  3. Commands are now Actions
  4. Flattening/merging, concatenating, and switching are now one operator
  5. Using PropertyType instead of RACObserve and RAC
  6. Using Signal.pipe instead of RACSubject
  7. Using SignalProducer.buffer instead of replaying
  8. Using startWithSignal instead of multicasting

Minor changes

  1. Disposable changes
  2. Scheduler changes


Parameterized types

Thanks to Swift, it is now possible to express the type of value that a signal can send. RAC also requires that the type of errors be specified.

For example, Signal<Int, NSError> is a signal that may send zero or more integers, and which may send an error of type NSError.

If it is impossible for a signal to error out, use the built-in NoError type (which can be referred to, but never created) to represent that case—for example, Signal<String, NoError> is a signal that may send zero or more strings, and which will not send an error under any circumstances.

Together, these additions make it much simpler to reason about signal interactions, and protect against several kinds of common bugs that occurred in Objective-C.

Interrupted event

In addition to the Next, Error, and Completed events that have always been part of RAC, version 3.0 adds another terminating event—called Interrupted—that is used to communicate cancellation.

Now, whenever a producer is disposed of, one final Interrupted event will be sent to all consumers, giving them a chance to react to the cancellation.

Similarly, observing a hot signal that has already terminated will immediately result in an Interrupted event, to clearly indicate that no further events are possible.

This brings disposal semantics more in line with normal event delivery, where events propagate downstream from producers to consumers. The result is a simpler model for reasoning about non-erroneous, yet unsuccessful, signal terminations.

Note: Custom Signal and SignalProducer operators should handle any received Interrupted event by forwarding it to their own observers. This ensures that interruption correctly propagates through the whole signal chain.

Objective-C bridging

To support interoperation between the Objective-C APIs introduced in RAC 2 and the Swift APIs introduced in RAC 3, the framework offers bridging functions that can convert types back and forth between the two.

Because the APIs are based on fundamentally different designs, the conversion is not always one-to-one; however, every attempt has been made to faithfully translate the concepts between the two APIs (and languages).

Common conversions include:

It is not possible (in the general case) to convert arbitrary RACSignal instances to Signals, because any RACSignal subscription could potentially involve side effects. To obtain a Signal, use RACSignal.toSignalProducer followed by SignalProducer.start, thereby making those side effects explicit.

Unfortunately, the executing properties of actions and commands are not synchronized across the API bridge. To ensure consistency, only observe the executing property from the base object (the one passed into the bridge, not retrieved from it), so updates occur no matter which object is used for execution.


Hot signals are now Signals

In the terminology of RAC 2, a “hot” RACSignal does not trigger any side effects when a -subscribe… method is called upon it. In other words, hot signals are entirely producer-driven and push-based, and consumers (subscribers) cannot have any effect on their lifetime.

This pattern is useful for notifying observers about events that will occur no matter what. For example, a loading boolean might flip between true and false regardless of whether anything is observing it.

Concretely, every RACSubject is a kind of hot signal, because the events being forwarded are not determined by the number of subscribers on the subject.

In RAC 3, “hot” signals are now solely represented by the Signal class, and “cold” signals have been separated into their own type. This reduces complexity by making it clear that no Signal object can trigger side effects when observed.

Cold signals are now SignalProducers

In the terminology of RAC 2, a “cold” RACSignal performs its work one time for every subscription. In other words, cold signals perform side effects when a -subscribe… method is called upon them, and may be able to cancel in-progress work if -dispose is called upon the returned RACDisposable.

This pattern is broadly useful because it minimizes unnecessary work, and allows operators like take, retry, concat, etc. to manipulate when work is started and cancelled. Cold signals are also similar to how futures and promises work, and can be useful for structuring asynchronous code (like network requests).

In RAC 3, “cold” signals are now solely represented by the SignalProducer class, which clearly indicates their relationship to “hot” signals. As the name indicates, a signal producer is responsible for creating a signal (when started), and can perform work as part of that process—meanwhile, the signal can have any number of observers without any additional side effects.

Commands are now Actions

Instead of the ambiguously named RACCommand, the Swift API offers the Action type—named as such because it’s mainly useful in UI programming—to fulfill the same purpose.

Like the rest of the Swift API, actions are parameterized by the types they use. An action must indicate the type of input it accepts, the type of output it produces, and what kinds of errors can occur (if any). This eliminates a few classes of type error, and clarifies intention.

Actions are also intended to be simpler overall than their predecessor:

Because actions are frequently used in conjunction with AppKit or UIKit, there is also a CocoaAction class that erases the type parameters of an Action, allowing it to be used from Objective-C.

As an example, an action can be wrapped and bound to UIControl like so:

self.cocoaAction = CocoaAction(underlyingAction)
self.button.addTarget(self.cocoaAction, action: CocoaAction.selector, forControlEvents: UIControlEvents.TouchUpInside)

Flattening/merging, concatenating, and switching are now one operator

RAC 2 offers several operators for transforming a signal-of-signals into one RACSignal, including:

Because -flattenMap: is the easiest to use, it was often incorrectly chosen even when concatenation or switching semantics are more appropriate.

RAC 3 distills these concepts down into just two operators, flatten and flatMap. Note that these do not have the same behavior as -flatten and -flattenMap: from RAC 2. Instead, both accept a “strategy” which determines how the producer-of-producers should be integrated, which can be one of:

This reduces the API surface area, and forces callers to consciously think about which strategy is most appropriate for a given use.

For streams of exactly one value, calls to -flattenMap: can be replaced with flatMap(.Concat), which has the additional benefit of predictable behavior if the input stream is refactored to have more values in the future.

Using PropertyType instead of RACObserve and RAC

To be more Swift-like, RAC 3 de-emphasizes Key-Value Coding (KVC) and Key-Value Observing (KVO) in favor of a less “magical” representation for properties. The PropertyType protocol and implementations replace most uses of the RACObserve() and RAC() macros.

For example, MutableProperty can be used to represent a property that can be bound to. If changes to that property should be visible to consumers, it can additionally be wrapped in PropertyOf (to hide the mutable bits) and exposed publicly.

If KVC or KVO is required by a specific API—for example, to observe changes to NSOperation.executing—RAC 3 offers a DynamicProperty type that can wrap those key paths. Use this class with caution, though, as it can’t offer any type safety, and many APIs (especially in AppKit and UIKit) are not documented to be KVO-compliant.

Using Signal.pipe instead of RACSubject

Since the Signal type, like RACSubject, is always “hot”, there is a special class method for creating a controllable signal. The Signal.pipe method can replace the use of subjects, and expresses intent better by separating the observing API from the sending API.

To use a pipe, set up observers on the signal as desired, then send values to the sink:

let (signal, sink) = Signal<Int, NoError>.pipe()

signal.observe(next: { value in

// Prints each number
sendNext(sink, 0)
sendNext(sink, 1)
sendNext(sink, 2)

Using SignalProducer.buffer instead of replaying

The producer version of Signal.pipe, the SignalProducer.buffer method can replace replaying with RACReplaySubject or any of the -replay… methods.

Conceptually, buffer creates a (optionally bounded) queue for events, much like RACReplaySubject, and replays those events when new Signals are created from the producer.

For example, to replay the values of an existing Signal, it just needs to be fed into the write end of the buffer:

let signal: Signal<Int, NoError>
let (producer, sink) = SignalProducer<Int, NoError>.buffer()

// Saves observed values in the buffer

// Prints each value buffered
producer.start(next: { value in

Using startWithSignal instead of multicasting

RACMulticastConnection and the -publish and -multicast: operators were always poorly understood features of RAC 2. In RAC 3, thanks to the Signal and SignalProducer split, the SignalProducer.startWithSignal method can replace multicasting.

startWithSignal allows any number of observers to attach to the created signal before any work is begun—therefore, the work (and any side effects) still occurs just once, but the values can be distributed to multiple interested observers. This fulfills the same purpose of multicasting, in a much clearer and more tightly-scoped way.

For example:

let producer = timer(5, onScheduler: QueueScheduler.mainQueueScheduler).take(3)

// Starts just one timer, sending the dates to two different observers as they
// are generated.
producer.startWithSignal { signal, disposable in
    signal.observe(next: { date in


Minor changes

Disposable changes

Disposables haven’t changed much overall in RAC 3, besides the addition of a protocol and minor naming tweaks.

The biggest change to be aware of is that setting SerialDisposable.innerDisposable will always dispose of the previous value, which helps prevent resource leaks or logic errors from forgetting to dispose manually.

Scheduler changes

RAC 3 replaces the multipurpose RACScheduler class with two protocols, SchedulerType and DateSchedulerType, with multiple implementations of each. This design indicates and enforces the capabilities of each scheduler using the type system.

In addition, the mainThreadScheduler has been replaced with UIScheduler and QueueScheduler.mainQueueScheduler. The UIScheduler type runs operations as soon as possible on the main thread—even synchronously (if possible), thereby replacing RAC 2’s -performOnMainThread operator—while QueueScheduler.mainQueueScheduler will always enqueue work after the current run loop iteration, and can be used to schedule work at a future date.